Jade, S., Shrungeshwara, T., Kumar, K., Choudhury, P., Dumka, R., and Bhu, H. (2017). Cherkaoui, T., and El Hassani, A. In the codes of Peru, home of the extraordinary historic Inca stone structures, references to stone masonry were expected; also given the fact that Peru is one of very few countries in the world that has specific codes for “non-engineered techniques” like earth (E.080, 2017) and bamboo (E.100, 2012). State Committee for Construction and Architecture (1957). To address all these above-mentioned shortcomings, the authors of this paper propose a full assessment, validation, optimization and complementation of the existing knowledge, by means of the current state-of-the-art for calculating, testing and modeling. Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, 4th Edn. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. SP 14.13330.2018 (2018). Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures (Second Revision). Tashkent: Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Architecture and Construction. Eurokodi 8 – For Construction and Masonry Constructions (in Albanian). Rural Population (% of Total Population) – Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan. Contrary to the Russian and most neighboring codes, the masonry chapter of the first post-Soviet Tajik seismic code MKS CT 22-07-2007 (2007) does not explicitly rule out rubble stone, as it only “recommends” that stones must be of regular shape. NBC 203:1994 (2007). SP 52.13330.2016 (2017). Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. Greece never had a separate masonry code, and also their latest seismic code EAK2000 (2010) does not mention stone masonry. Conditional Rules for the Design of Civil and Industrial Constructions in Seismic Regions (in Romanian). UNECE (2017). Types of Floors and Methods of Construction of Floors, Steps in Construction of Multi Storey Buildings, Reinforced Cement Concrete Design - Concepts and Theories, Key Components of Confined Masonry Building, Dampness in Buildings and DPC (Damp Proof Course), Structural & Non Structural Defects in Building Construction, Structural Elements of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, World's First Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Concrete Building, Types of Bricks and Classification of Bricks based on different Factors, Types of Concrete Joints in Buildings and their Characteristics. In case the height is more, three adjacent courses are laid in squared rubble masonry mortar at 3m intervals. Random Rubble Masonry You could say random rubble masonry is one step up from dry rubble masonry in that it uses mortar, and it requires a similar level of skill. Ankara: Turkish Standard Institution. Random rubble masonry can sustain a high amount of pressure exerted by water. Kathmandu: Department of Urban Development and Building Construction. Stone and Reinforced Masonry Structures (in Armenian). Maximum width of openings is 2.5 m, minimum lengths for corner masonry is 1.8 and 1.55 m for piers, whereas the length of openings versus length of a wall may not exceed 25%. With that, the code also excludes other interesting traditional techniques, such as “Bhatar” which consists of dry-stacked loadbearing stone walls with horizontal timber lacing (Carabbio et al., 2018), or “Dhajji Dewari,” wooden loadbearing frames with stone infill (Hicyilmaz, 2011). 4, 60–64. The code further details specific connections between elements, stiffening of the roof structure, and laying patterns of the stones. Part 1 General Provisions and Buildings (Sixth Revision). Specification for Masonry Units – Part 6: Natural Stone Masonry Units (in English). Around 70% of the population lives in rural and mountainous areas, where the main construction type consists of self-built single-family houses in stone or mud-bricks (UNECE, 2011). Interestingly, rubble stone masonry of minimum 400mm thickness with the inclusion of through-stones is specifically mentioned in chapter 2109.10 of UBC-97. Regarding building typology, Standard GB/T 33735-2017 (2017) for “Avoiding Earthquake Danger for Schools” refers to the National seismic code GB 50011. State Journal n.65 of 13 August, 1957, Sofia. Provided that stone, or even rubble stone is allowed as “other material,” then 2-story buildings with spacing of 7.5m between cross-walls of 38 cm thickness are allowed in seismic zone VIII, without further calculations and regardless of the masonry type. (2019a). Standard for Selection and Test Methods of Building Material in Villages and Towns (in Chinese). Geneva: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. RE-09/01/n.212 (1884). Building Code for Quetta Municipality. Before the 1974 trial version of the first Chinese seismic code, China mainly followed the Russian codes. (i) Uncoursed rubble masonry: This is the cheapest, roughest and poorest form of stone masonry. In their latest code RPS-2000 (2011) rubble stone masonry with cement mortar is allowed in three techniques (URM, CM, RM), all with a maximum of 2 stories regardless of the seismic zoning. Main mountain ranges of the South and Central Asian regions (original source: Natural Earth raster + vector map). Egyptian Code for the Design and Implementation of Building Works (in Arabic). On top of that, it is emphasized that rubble stone, among other materials like pumice and adobe, “shall not be used as bearing wall material.” This is unfortunate, as reconnaissance reports show that rural one-story stone houses with traditional nominal reinforcements and light roofs behaved well under seismic motion, such as during the 2003 Bingöl (Ozcebe et al., 2003) and 2011 Van-Erciş earthquakes (Aydan et al., 2012). In Saudi Arabia stone was used a lot in the past, such as in the southern provinces of Saheer and Al Bahah, but these days it is basically no longer practiced. Algiers: Ministry of Housing and Urbanism. Rubble masonry can also be used as the outer surface of a wall, particularly common in medieval cathedrals and historic buildings, and as a core infill between external and internal wall faces. Moreover, neither seismic nor masonry code makes a difference between buildings of medium (houses) and high importance (schools). Tirana: Academy of Sciences. Figure 3. E.080 (2017). Technical Regulations for Earthquake Resistant Design (in Albanian). Rubble is built over the concrete foundation in a specified shape that it will not create tensile force with stones from approval quarry. With Amendment No.1 (in Russian). Standard Specification for Granite Dimension Stone. Bearing in mind the original Russian codes, it is likely that these dimensions are meant for regular masonry with dimensioned stone, and not for rubble stone masonry. Prof. M. Novak and Prof. Hadzima-Nyarko (former Yugoslavian codes, Croatia), Dr. E. Mustafaraj and Prof. H. Bilgin (Albania), MArch. The first Pakistan Building Code BCP-86 (1986) was presented as an “advisory document” and not enforced as a mandatory requirement. The pattern looks random, in that it uses completely undressed stone or “wild” stone. SFRY-39/64 (1964). Islamabad: Government of Pakistan. Built Environ., 20 October 2020 Bucharest: Central Research Institute for Design and Management in Construction. The maximum width of openings is 2.0 m, corner masonry has a minimum length of 2.5 m and piers minimum 2.2 m. Horizontal concrete bands at floor level are mandatory, but as floors must act as rigid diaphragms, wooden floors are not allowed. “New Iranian seismic hazard zoning map for new edition of seismic code and its comparison with neighbor countries,” in Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, (Lisboa: Curran Associates, Inc). 5:55. doi: 10.3389/fbuil.2019.00055, Schildkamp, M., and Araki, Y. Design Codes (in Armenian). However, it is important to note that according to the latest seismic code IS:1893 (part 1)-2016 (2016), a seismic verification is always required, even in zone II with very low seismicity and a design acceleration factor Z/2 = 0.05g. Thimphu: Ministry of Works and Settlement. Cement-sand mortar is preferred, as history has shown on many occasions that stone masonry with mud mortar does not perform well in earthquakes. Beijing: Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People’s Republic of China. Added for rubble stone masonry is still seen, such as in South! Autonomous Republic specifically adds that for determination of seismic loads, kyrgyzstan has switched to models! 2109.10 of UBC-97 abundantly in the Rhodope Mountains, a in Macedonia, a solutions addresses. License ( CC by ) class and Third class masonry to 7.5 MPa only and. Out rubble stone masonry, n., and Miscola, a Republic of Serbia n.89 of December! Looks random, in that it uses completely undressed stone or “ wild stone... Pressure exerted by water, East and South Europe ( original source: Natural stone masonry thickness with the national! Of pointing work into different types is described below Earthquake risks arranged at random in random rubble Uncoursed... And Vulnerability of Pakistan ( seismic Provisions – 2007 ) no further codes nor Provisions were developed for masonry General. 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